Expert reviews

The Future Under a 'Hard' and a 'Soft' Brexit (August 2016)

‘Brexit means Brexit’: but what does Brexit mean for the environment? In this new study, Dr Charlotte Burns (University of York), Prof Andrew Jordan and Dr Viviane Gravey (University of East Anglia) explore what Brexit may mean for UK environmental policies and governance processes by comparing two scenarios: a ‘soft’ and a ‘hard’ Brexit. A ‘soft’ Brexit would see the UK remain as close as possible to the EU, establishing a new relationship akin to Norway’s relationship with the EU. Conversely a ‘hard’ Brexit would see the UK trade with the EU under World Trade Organisation rules. Both will generate radically different impacts on policies, systems of governance and levels of environmental quality in the UK – key issues that should inform forthcoming negotiations to effect Brexit. The study concludes with suggestions for future research and policy.

Watch Dr Viviane Gravey's introduction to the study:

How has EU membership affected the UK and what might change in the event of a vote to Remain or Leave? (April 2016)

This expert review provides a detailed review of the academic evidence on how EU membership has influenced UK policies, systems of decision making and environmental quality. Containing 14 chapters and over 60,000 words, it documents how the EU has affected UK environmental policy and how, in turn, the UK has worked through the EU to shape wider, international thinking. It has been authored by 14 international experts, who have drawn on the findings of over 700 publications to offer an impartial and authoritative assessment of the evidence.

Watch Prof Andrew Jordan's introduction to the review:

Download the executive summary.

The authors:

Dr Nathalie Berny, Sciences Po Bordeaux

Dr Charlotte Burns, University of York

Professor Simon Bulmer FAcSS, University of Sheffield

Professor Neil Carter, University of York

Dr Richard Cowell, Cardiff University

Joseph Dutton, University of Exeter

Dr Viviane Gravey, University of East Anglia

Professor Andrew Jordan FAcSS, University of East Anglia

Brendan Moore, University of East Anglia

Professor Sebastian Oberthür, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Institute for European Studies

Professor Susan Owens OBE, FAcSS, FBA, University of Cambridge

Dr Tim Rayner, University of East Anglia

Professor Joanne Scott FBA, FRSE, University College London

Dr Bryce Stewart, University of York